The new POPs under the Stockholm Convention

The Conference of the Parties adopted amendments at its meetings.

For quick overview, you can download the booklet introduces basic information on the 16 newly chemicals added to the Stockholm Convention. See also Factsheets on some of the listed POPs (Dicofol, PFOA, PFOS, DecaBDE, SCCP, HCBD) and chemicals under review by the POPs Review Committee (PFHxS, Dechloran Plus and methoxychlor) and related exemptions.  

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At its ninth meeting held from 29 April to 10 May 2019, Annexes A and B have been amended as follows:

  • List dicofol in Annex A without specific exemptions (decision SC-9/11)
  • List perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), its salts and PFOA-related compounds in Annex A with specific exemptions (decision SC-9/12)
  • Amend acceptable purposes and specific exemptions of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, its salts and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride in Annex B (decision SC-9/4)
    Reference: C.N.588.2019.TREATIES-XXVII.15 (ENGLISH | FRENCH)

At its eighth meeting held from 24 April to 5 May 2017, Annexes A and C have been amended to list:

  • Decabromodiphenyl ether (commercial mixture, c-DecaBDE) in Annex A with specific exemptions (decision SC-8/10)
  • Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in Annex A with specific exemptions (decision SC-8/11)
  • Hexachlorobutadiene in Annex C (decision SC-8/12)
    Reference: C.N.766.2017.TREATIES-XXVII.15 (ENGLISH | FRENCH)

At its seventh meeting held from 4 to 15 May 2015, Annexes A and C have been amended to list:

  • Hexachlorobutadiene in Annex A without specific exemptions (decision SC-7/12 )
  • Pentachlorophenol and its salts and esters in Annex A with specific exemptions (decision SC-7/13)
  • Polychlorinated naphthalenes in Annex A with specific exemptions and in Annex C (decision SC-7/14).
  • The amendments were communicated by the depositary to all Parties on 15 December 2015.
    Reference: C.N.681.2015.TREATIES-XXVII.15 (ENGLISH | FRENCH).

At its sixth meeting held from 28 April to 10 May 2013, Annex A has been amended to list:

  • Hexabromocyclododecane in Annex A with specific exemptions (decision SC-6/13).
  • The amendment was communicated by the depositary to all Parties on 26 November 2013.
    Reference: C.N.934.2013.TREATIES-XXVII.15 (ENGLISH | FRENCH).

At its fifth meeting held from 25 to 29 May 2011, Annex A has been amended to list:

  • Technical endosulfan and its related isomers in Annex A with a specific exemption (decision SC-5/3).
  • The amendment was communicated by the depositary to all Parties on 27 October 2011.
    Reference: C.N.703.2011.TREATIES-8 (ENGLISH | FRENCH).

At its fourth meeting held from 4 to 8 May 2009, Annexes A, B and C have been amended to list:

  • Alpha hexachlorocyclohexane in Annex A without specific exemptions (decision SC-4/10)
  • Beta hexachlorocyclohexane in Annex A without specific exemptions (decision SC-4/11)
  • Chlordecone in Annex A without specific exemptions (decision SC-4/12)
  • Hexabromobiphenyl in Annex A without specific exemptions (decision SC-4/13)
  • Hexabromodiphenyl ether and heptabromodiphenyl ether in Annex A with specific exemptions (decision SC-4/14)
  • Lindane in Annex A with specific exemptions (decision SC-4/15)
  • Pentachlorobenzene in Annex without specific exemptions and in Annex C (decision SC-4/16)
  • Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, its salts and perluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride in Annex B with acceptable purposes and specific exemptions (decision SC-4/17)
  • Tetrabromodiphenyl ether and pentabromodiphenyl ether in Annex A with specific exemptions (decision SC-4/18)
  • The amendments were communicated by the depositary to all Parties on 26 August 2009. Reference: C.N.524.2009.TREATIES-4 (ENGLISH | FRENCH).

The dates of entry into force of those amendments are here.

Detailed risk profile can be accessed by clicking a chemical’s name.

Chemical
Annex
Specific exemptions /
Acceptable purposes
Decision
Factsheet

A
Production: None
Use: None
SC-4/10
 
A
Production: None
Use: None
SC-4/11
 
A
Production: None
Use: None
SC-4/12
A
Production: As allowed for the Parties listed in the Register
Use: Vehicles, aircraft, textile, additives in plastic housings etc., polyurethane foam for building insulation, in accordance with Part IX of Annex A
SC-8/10
 
A
Production: None
Use: None
SC-9/11
 
A
Production: None
Use: None
SC-4/13
A
Production: As allowed by the Parties listed in the Register of specific exemptions.
Use: Expanded polystyrene and extruded polystyrene in buildings in accordance with the provisions of part VII of Annex A
SC-6/13

A
Production: None
Use: Articles in accordance with the provisions of Part IV of Annex A
SC-4/14
 Hexachlorobutadiene
A and C
Production: None
Use: None
SC-7/12
SC-8/12
 
A
Production: None
Use: Human health pharmaceutical for control of head lice and scabies as second line treatment
SC-4/15
 
A and C
Production: None
Use: None
SC-4/16
Pentachlorophenol and its salts and esters
A
Production: As allowed for the Parties listed in the Register in  accordance with the provisions of part VIII of Annex A
Use: Pentachlorophenol for utility poles and cross-arms in  accordance with the provisions of part VIII of Annex A 
SC-7/13

B
Production: For the use below
Use: Acceptable purposes and specific exemptions in accordance with Part III of Annex B
SC-4/17
SC-9/4

A
Production: Fire-fighting foam: None. For other production, as allowed for the Parties listed in the Register in accordance with the provisions of part X of Annex A
Use: In accordance with the provisions of part X of Annex A
SC-9/12
 Polychlorinated naphthalenes
 
A and C
Production: For the use below
Use: Production of polyfluorinated naphthalenes, including  octafluoronaphthalene 
SC-7/14

A
Production: As allowed for the Parties listed in the Register
Use: Additives in transmission belts, rubber conveyor belts, leather, lubricant additives, tubes for outdoor decoration bulbs, paints, adhesives, metal processing, plasticizers
SC-8/11
A
Production: As allowed for the Parties listed in the Register of specific exemptions
Use: Crop-pest complexes as listed in accordance with the provisions of part VI of  Annex A
SC-5/3

A
Production: None
Use: Articles in accordance with the provisions of Part V of Annex A
SC-4/18

Chlordecone

Listed under Annex A (decision SC-4/12)

Risk profile Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

Chlordecone is chemically related to Mirex, a pesticide listed in Annex A of the Convention.

CAS No: 143-50-0
Trade name: Kepone® and GC-1189

 

Use and production

Chlordecone is a synthetic chlorinated organic compound, which was mainly used as an agricultural pesticide. It was first produced in 1951 and introduced commercially in 1958. Currently, no use or production of the chemical is reported.

POPs characteristics of chlordecone

Chlordecone is highly persistent in the environment, has a high potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification and based on physico-chemical properties and modelling data, chlordecone can be transported for long distances. It is classified as a possible human carcinogen and is very toxic to aquatic organisms.

Replacement of chlordecone

Alternatives to chlordecone exist and can be implemented inexpensively. Many countries have already banned its sale and use. The main objective to phase out chlordecone would be to identify and manage obsolete stockpiles and wastes.

For more information, please refer to the alternatives to chlordecone page.

Hexabromobiphenyl

Listed under Annex A (decision SC-4/13)

Risk profile Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

Hexabromobiphenyl belongs to the group of polybrominated biphenyls, which are brominated hydrocarbons formed by substituting hydrogen with bromine in biphenyl.

CAS No: 36355-01-8
Trade name: FireMaster BP-6 and FireMaster FF-1

 

Use and production

Hexabromobiphenyl is an industrial chemical that has been used as a flame retardant, mainly in the 1970s. According to available information, hexabromobiphenyl is no longer produced or used in most countries.

POPs characteristics of hexabromobiphenyl

The chemical is highly persistent in the environment, highly bioaccumulative and has a strong possibility for long-range environmental transport. As hexabromobiphenyl is classified as a possible human carcinogen and has other chronic toxic effects, the Committee recommended its listing as a POP.

Replacement of hexabromobiphenyl

Alternatives are available for all uses of hexabromobiphenyl, so prohibiting its use and production is feasible and inexpensive. This chemical is already subject to several national and international regulations, restricting its use and production.

For more information, please refer to the alternatives to Hexabromobiphenyl page.

Hexabromodiphenyl ether and heptabromodiphenyl ether<br/> (commercial octabromodiphenyl ether)

Listed under Annex A with a specific exemption for use as articles containing these chemicals for recycling in accordance with the provision in Part IV of Annex A (decision SC-4/14)

Risk profile Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

Hexabromodiphenyl ether and heptabromodiphenyl ether are the main components of commercial octabromodiphenyl ether.

CAS No: 68631-49-2
CAS No: 207122-15-4
CAS No: 446255-22-7
CAS No: 207122-16-5

 

POPs characteristics of hexaBDE and heptaBDE

Commercial mixture of octaBDE is highly persistent, has a high potential for bioaccumulation and food-web biomagnification, as well as for long-range transport. The only degradation pathway is through debromination and producing other bromodiphenyl ethers.

Replacement of hexaBDE and heptaBDE

Alternatives generally exist and there is no information about any current production. However, it is reported that many articles in use still contain these chemicals.

Debromination and precursors

Polybromodiphenyl ethers can be subject to debromination, i.e. the replacement of bromine on the aromatic ring with hydrogen.

Higher bromodiphenyl ether congeners may be converted to lower, and possibly more toxic, congeners. The higher congeners might therefore be precursors to the tetraBDE, pentaBDE, hexaBDE, or heptaBDE.

For more information, please refer to the alternatives to Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) page.

Alpha hexachlorocyclohexane

Listed under Annex A (decision SC-4/10)

Risk profile Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

alpha hexachlorocyclohexane
CAS No: 319-84-6

 

Use and production

Although the intentional use of alpha-HCH as an insecticide was phased out years ago, this chemical is still produced as unintentional by-product of lindane. For each ton of lindane produced, around 6-10 tons of the other isomers including alpha- and beta-HCH are created. Large stockpiles of alpha- and beta-HCH are therefore present in the environment.

POPs characteristics of alpha-HCH

Alpha-HCH is highly persistent in water in colder regions and may bioaccumulate and biomagnify in biota and arctic food webs. This chemical is subject to long-range transport, is classified as potentially carcinogenic to humans and adversely affects wildlife and human health in contaminated regions.

Replacement of alpha-HCH

Today, alpha-HCH is only produced unintentionally during the production of lindane. Releases also occur from stockpiles and contaminated sites.

For more information, please refer to the alternatives to alpha-HCH page.

Beta hexachlorocyclohexane

Listed under Annex A (decision SC-4/11)

Risk profile Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

beta hexachlorocyclohexane
CAS No: 319-85-7

 

Use and production

Although the intentional use of beta-HCH as an insecticide was phased out years ago, this chemical is still produced as unintentional by-product of lindane. For each ton of lindane produced, around 6-10 tons of the other isomers including alpha- and beta-HCH are created. Large stockpiles of alpha- and beta-HCH are therefore present in the environment.

POPs characteristics of beta-HCH

Beta-HCH is highly persistent in water in colder regions and may bioaccumulate and biomagnify in biota and arctic food webs. This chemical is subject to long-range transport, is classified as potentially carcinogenic to humans and adversely affects wildlife and human health in contaminated regions.

Replacement of beta-HCH

Today, beta-HCH is only produced unintentionally during the production of lindane. Releases also occur from stockpiles and contaminated sites.

For more information, please refer to the alternatives to beta-HCH page.

Lindane

Listed under Annex A with a specific exemption for use as a human health pharmaceutical for control of head lice and scabies as second line treatment (decision SC-4/15)

Risk profile Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

Lindane is the common name for the gamma isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). Technical HCH is an isomeric mixture that contains mainly five forms, namely alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta- and epsilon-HCH.

Lindane (gamma-HCH)
CAS No: 58-89-9

 

Use and production

Lindane has been used as a broad-spectrum insecticide for seed and soil treatment, foliar applications, tree and wood treatment and against ectoparasites in both veterinary and human applications. The production of lindane has decreased rapidly in the last few years and only few countries are still known to produce lindane.

POPs characteristics of lindane

Lindane is persistent, bioaccumulates easily in the food chain and bioconcentrates rapidly. There is evidence for long-range transport and toxic effects (immunotoxic, reproductive and developmental effects) in laboratory animals and aquatic organisms.

Replacement of lindane

Alternatives for lindane are generally available, except for use as a human health pharmaceutical to control head lice and scabies. Regulations on the production, use and monitoring of lindane already exist in several countries.

For more information, please refer to the alternatives to Lindane page.

Pentachlorobenzene (PeCB)

Listed under Annex A and under Annex C (decision SC-4/16)

Risk profile Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF), addendum to the risk profile Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

PeCB belongs to a group of chlorobenzenes that are characterized by a benzene ring in which the hydrogen atoms are substituted by one or more chlorines.

CAS No: 608-93-5

 

Use and production

PeCB was used in PCB products, in dyestuff carriers, as a fungicide, a flame retardant and as a chemical intermediate e.g. previously for the production of quintozene. PeCB might still be used as an intermediate. PeCB is also produced unintentionally during combustion, thermal and industrial processes. It also present as impurities in products such as solvents or pesticides.

POPs characteristics of of PeCB

PeCB is persistent in the environment, highly bioaccumulative and has a potential for long-range environmental transport. It is moderately toxic to humans and very toxic to aquatic organisms.

Replacement of of PeCB

The production of PeCB ceased some decades ago in the main producer countries as efficient and cost-effective alternatives are available. Applying Best Available Techniques and Best Environmental Practices would significantly reduce the unintentional production of PeCB.

For more information, please refer to the alternatives to PeCB page.

Tetrabromodiphenyl ether and pentabromodiphenyl ether <br/>(commercial pentabromodiphenyl ether)

Listed under Annex A with a specific exemption for use as articles containing these chemicals for recycling in accordance with the provision in Part V of Annex A (decision SC-4/18)

Risk profile Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

Tetrabromodiphenyl ether and pentabromodiphenyl ether are the main components of commercial pentabromodiphenyl ether.

CAS No: 5436-43-1 
CAS No: 60348-60-9

 

POPs characteristics of tetraBDE and pentaBDE

Commercial mixture of pentaBDE is highly persistent in the environment, bioaccumulative and has a high potential for long-range environmental transport. These chemicals have been detected in humans in all regions. There is evidence of its potential for toxic effects in wildlife, including mammals.

Replacement of tetraBDE and pentaBDE

Alternatives are available and used to replace these substances in many countries, although they might also have adverse effects on human health and the environment. Alternatives might not be available for use in military airplanes. The identification and also handling of equipment and wastes containing brominated diphenyl ethers is considered a challenge.

Polybromodiphenyl ethers

Polybromodiphenyl ether congeners including tetraBDE, pentaBDE, hexaBDE, and heptaBDE inhibit or suppress combustion in organic materials and therefore are used as additive flame retardants.

For more information, please refer to the alternatives to tetraBDE and pentaBDE page.

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), its salts and<br/> perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (PFOS-F)

Listed under Annex B with acceptable purposes and specific exemptions (decision SC-4/17)

Risk profile Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation (RME) Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF), addendum to the RME Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

PFOS is a fully fluorinated anion, which is commonly used as a salt or incorporated into larger polymers. PFOS and its closely related compounds, which may contain PFOS impurities or substances that can result in PFOS, are members of the large family of perfluoroalkyl sulfonate substances.

perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (CAS No: 1763-23-1) and its salts
perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (CAS No: 307-35-7)

 

Use and production

PFOS is both intentionally produced and an unintended degradation product of related anthropogenic chemicals. The current intentional use of PFOS is widespread and includes: electric and electronic parts, fire fighting foam, photo imaging, hydraulic fluids and textiles. PFOS is still produced in several countries.

POPs characteristics of PFOS

PFOS is extremely persistent and has substantial bioaccumulating and biomagnifying properties, although it does not follow the classic pattern of other POPs by partitioning into fatty tissues but instead binds to proteins in the blood and the liver. It has a capacity to undergo long-range transport and also fulfills the toxicity criteria of the Stockholm Convention.

Replacement of PFOS

While alternatives to PFOS are available for some applications, this is not always the case in developing countries where existing alternatives may need to be phased in. For some applications like photo imaging, semi-conductor or aviation hydraulic fluids, technically feasible alternatives to PFOS are not available to date.

List of acceptable purposes and specific exemptions
for production and use of PFOS, its salts and PFOS-F

Acceptable purposes:

Insect baits with sulfluramid (CAS No. 4151-50-2) as an active ingredient for control of leaf-cutting ants from Atta spp. and Acromyrmex spp. for agricultural use only.

Specific exemptions:

Metal plating (hard-metal plating) only in closed-loop systems; fire-fighting foam for liquid fuel vapour suppression and liquid fuel fires (Class B fires) in installed systems, including both mobile and fixed systems.

For more information, please refer to the alternatives to PFOS page.

Technical endosulfan and its related isomers

Listed under Annex A with specific exemptions (decision SC-5/3)

Risk profile Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

Endosulfan occurs as two isomers: alpha- and beta-endosulfan. They are both biologically active. Technical endosulfan (CAS No: 115-29-7) is a mixture of the two isomers along with small amounts of impurities.

 

 

alpha-endosulfan
CAS No: 959-98-8



 

beta-endosulfan
CAS No: 33213-65-9


Use and production

According to the risk management evaluation on endosulfan, adopted by the POPRC, endosulfan is an insecticide that has been used since the 1950s to control crop pests, tsetse flies and ectoparasites of cattle and as a wood preservative. As a broad-spectrum insecticide, endosulfan is currently used to control a wide range of pests on a variety of crops including coffee, cotton, rice, sorghum and soy.

A total of between 18,000 and 20,000 tons of endosulfan are produced annually in Brazil, China, India, Israel and South Korea. Colombia, the United States of America  and several countries in Europe that used to produce endosulfan have stopped its production.

The largest users of endosulfan (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Pakistan and the United States) use a total of about 15,000 tons of endosulfan annually. An additional 21 countries report using endosulfan. The use of endosulfan is banned or will be phased out in 60 countries that, together, account for 45 per cent of current global use. 

POPs characteristics of endosulfan

According to the risk profile on endosulfan, adopted by the POPRC, endosulfan is persistent in the atmosphere, sediments and water. Endosulfan bioaccumulates and has the potential for long-range transport. It has been detected in air, sediments, water and in living organisms in remote areas, such as the Arctic, that are distant from areas of intensive use.

Endosulfan is toxic to humans and has been shown to have adverse effects on a wide range of aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Exposure to endosulfan has been linked to congenital physical disorders, mental retardations and deaths in farm workers and villagers in developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Endosulfan sulfate shows toxicity similar to that of endosulfan.

Replacement of endosulfan

Chemical and non-chemical alternatives to endosulfan are available in many geographical situations both in developed and developing countries. Some of these alternatives are being applied in countries where endosulfan has been banned or is being phased-out. However, in some countries, it may be difficult and/or costly to replace endosulfan for specific crop-pest complexes. Some countries also prefer to use endosulfan in pollinator management, insecticide resistance management, integrated pest management systems and because it is effective against a broad range of pests. Some countries want to continue to use endosulfan to allow time for the phase-in of alternatives.

For more information, please refer to the technical endosulfan page.

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD)

Listed under Annex A (decision SC-6/13)

Risk profile Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation (RME) Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF), addendum to the RME Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

Commercially available hexabromocyclododecane is a white solid substance. Its structural formula is a cyclic ring structure with Br-atoms attached.

hexabromocyclododecane (CAS number 25637-99-4) and
1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (CAS number 3194-55-6).

Use and production

HBCD  is used a flame retardant additive, providing fire protection during the service life of vehicles, buildings or articles, as well as protection while stored. The main uses of HBCD globally are in expanded and extruded polystyrene foam insulation while the use in textile applications and electric and electronic appliances is smaller. The production of hexabromocyclododecane is a batch-process. Elemental bromine is added to cyclododecatriene at 20 to 70°C in the presence of a solvent in a closed system.

POPs characteristics of HBCD

HBCD has a strong potential to bioaccumulate and biomagnify . It is persistent in the environment, and has a potential for long-range environmental transport. It is very toxic to aquatic organisms. Though information on the human toxicity of HBCD is to a great extent lacking, vulnerable groups could be at risk, particularly to the observed neuroendocrine and developmental toxicity of HBCD.

Replacement of HBCD

The production of HBCD has decreased in the last few years and there are already available on the market chemical alternatives to replace HBCD in high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) and textile back-coating. After any alternative becomes available in commercial quantities, it will take some time for the industry to seek qualification and re-certification of polystyrene bead and foam products for fire‑rating.

For more information, please refer to the alternatives to HBCD page.

Pentachlorophenol and its salts and esters (PCP)

Listed under Annex A with specific exemptions for use in utility poles and cross-arms (decision SC-7/13)

Risk profile Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

PCP can be found in two forms: PCP itself or as the sodium salt of PCP, which dissolves easily in water.

CAS No:
No: 87-86-5 (Pentachlorophenol)
No: 131-52-2 (sodium pentachlorophenate)
No: 27735-64-4 (as monohydrate)
No: 3772-94-9 (pentachlorophenyl laurate)
No: 1825-21-4 (pentachloroanisole)

 

Use

PCP has been used as herbicide, insecticide, fungicide, algaecide, disinfectant and as an ingredient in antifouling paint. Some applications were in agricultural seeds, leather, wood preservation, cooling tower water, rope and paper mill system. Its use has been significantly declined due to the high toxicity of PCP and its slow biodegradation.

Production

First produced in the 1930s, it is marketed under many trade names. The main contaminants include other polychlorinated phenols, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzo furans.

Toxicity

People may be exposed to PCP in occupational settings through the inhalation of contaminated workplace air and dermal contact or with wood products treated with PCP. Short-term exposure to large amounts of PCP can cause harmful effects on the liver, kidneys, blood, lungs, nervous system, immune system, and gastrointestinal tract. Elevated temperature, profuse sweating, uncoordinated movement, muscle twitching, and coma are additional side effects. Contact with PCP can irritate the skin, eyes, and mouth. Long-term exposure to low levels such as those that occur in the workplace can cause damage to the liver, kidneys, blood, and nervous system. Finally exposure to PCP is also associated with carcinogenic, renal, and neurological effects.

Alternatives

Both chemical and non-chemical alternatives exist for PCP within applications for utility poles and cross arms.

For more information, please refer to the alternatives to PCP page.

Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD)

Listed under Annex A without specific exemptions (decision SC-7/12) and under Annex C (decision SC-8/12)

Risk profile Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

This chemical is a halogenated aliphatic compound, mainly created as a by-product in the manufacture of chlorinated aliphatic compounds.

CAS No: 87-68-3

 

Use

Most commonly used as a solvent for other chlorine-containing compounds.

Production

Hexachlorobutadiene occurs as a by-product during the chlorinolysis of butane derivatives in the production of both carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethene. These two commodities are manufactured on such a large scale, that enough HCBD can generally be obtained to meet the industrial demand.

Toxicity

Systemic toxicity following exposure via oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. Effects may include fatty liver degeneration, epithelial necrotizing nephritis, central nervous system depression and cyanosis. The USEPA has classified hexachlorobutadiene as a group C Possible Human Carcinogen.

Alternatives

It seems that HCBD is no longer intentionally produced and used in the UNECE region including in the US and Canada; specific information on current intentional production and use and for the past 30 years is lacking. This indicates that substitution has taken place and alternatives are available.

For more information, please refer to the alternatives to HCBD page.

Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs)

Listed under Annex A and C with specific exemptions for use in the production of polyfluorinated naphthalenes, including octafluoronaphthalene (decision SC-7/14)

Risk profile Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

Commercial PCNs are mixtures of up to 75 chlorinated naphthalene congeners plus byproducts and are often described by the total fraction of chlorine.

CAS No: 70776-03-3 (chlorinated naphthalenes)

 

Use

PCNs make effective insulating coatings for electrical wires. Others have been used as wood preservatives, as rubber and plastic additives, for capacitor dielectrics and in lubricants.

Production

Made by chemically reacting chlorine with naphthalene, a soft, pungent solid made from coal or petroleum and often used for mothproofing. PCNs started to be produced for high-volume uses around 1910 in both Europe and the United States. To date, intentional production of PCN is assumed to have ended. PCN are unintentionally generated during high-temperature industrial processes in the presence of chlorine.

Toxicity

After about twenty years of commercial production, health hazards began to be reported in workers exposed to PCNs: severe skin rashes and liver disease that led to deaths of workers. While some PCNs can be broken down by sunlight and, at slow rates, by certain microorganisms, many PCNs persist in the environment. Acute exposure causes chloracne. Chronic exposure increases risk of liver disease. Increased cancer risks have been suspected but so far not shown. Current concerns about PCNs include their release as byproducts of waste incineration.

Alternatives

Within the UNECE region, the information on substitution and alternatives is extremely limited, as PCN are not in use anymore. The only available information is that, since the production of PCN has stopped in the 1970s and 1980s, PCN have been substituted by other chemicals. These chemicals have not been identified and described (UNECE 2007).

For more information, please refer to the alternatives to PCN page.

Decabromodiphenyl ether (commercial mixture, c-decaBDE)

Listed under Annex A (decision SC-8/10)

Risk profile Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

The commercial mixture consists primarily of the fully brominated decaBDE congener in a concentration range of 77.4-98 %, and smaller amounts of the congeners of nonaBDE (0.3-21.8 %) and octaBDE (0-0.04 %).

CAS No: 1163-19-5

 

Use and Production

DecaBDE is used as an additive flame retardant, and has a variety of applications including in plastics/polymers/composites, textiles, adhesives, sealants, coatings and inks. DecaBDE containing plastics are used in housings of computers and TVs, wires and cables, pipes and carpets. Commercially available decaBDE consumption peaked in the early 2000's, but c-decaBDE is still extensively used worldwide.

POPs characteristics of c-decaBDE

The decaBDE is highly persistent, has a high potential for bioaccumulation and food-web biomagnification, as well as for long-range transport. Adverse effects are reported for soil organisms, birds, fish, frog, rat, mice and humans.

Replacement of deca-BDE

A number of non-POP chemical alternatives are already on the market for the substitution of c-decaBDE in plastics and textiles. Furthermore, non-chemical alternatives and technical solutions such as non-flammable materials and physical barriers, respectively, are also available.

For more information, please refer to the alternatives to DecaBDE page.

Short-chained chlorinated paraffins

Listed under Annex A (decision SC-8/11)

Risk profile Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are complex mixtures of certain organic compounds containing chloride: polychlorinated n-alkanes. The chlorination degree of CPs can vary between 30 and 70 wt %.

CAS No: 85535-84-8

 

Use and Production

SCCPs are sufficiently persistent in air for long range transport to occur and appear to be hydrolytically stable. Many SCCPs can accumulate in biota. It is concluded that SCCPs are likely, as a result of their long range environmental transport, to lead to significant adverse environmental and human health effects.

POPs characteristics of SCCPs

SCCPs can be used as a plasticizer in rubber, paints, adhesives, flame retardants for plastics as well as an extreme pressure lubricant in metal working fluids. Chlorinated paraffins are produced by chlorination of straight-chained paraffin fractions. The carbon chain length of commercial chlorinated paraffins is usually between 10 and 30 carbon atoms. Short-chained chlorinated paraffins is between C10 and C13. The production of SCCPs has decreased globally as jurisdictions have established control measures.

Replacement of SCCPs

Technically feasible alternatives are commercially available for all known uses of SCCPs.

For more information, please refer to the alternatives to SCCPs page.

Dicofol

Listed under Annex A (decision SC-9/11)

Risk profile Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

Dicofol is an organochlorine pesticide comprising two isomers: p,p′-dicofol and o,p′-dicofol. The technical product (95% pure) is a brown viscous oil and is composed of 80-85% p,p′-dicofol and 15-20% o,p’-dicofol with up to 18 reported impurities.
2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol

 

p,p′-dicofol
CAS No: 115-32-2


2,2,2-Trichloro-1-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol

o,p′-dicofol
CAS No: 10606-46-9

Use

Dicofol is an organochlorine miticidal pesticide that has been used in agriculture to control mites on a variety of field crops, fruits, vegetables, ornamentals, cotton, tea. It was also used an acaricide for cotton, citrus and apple crops.

POPs characteristics of dicofol

Monitoring data have shown that dicofol is sufficiently persistent to be transported via riverine input to the open sea and to be detected in deep sediment layers dated back several decades. Dicofol has a high bioconcentration potential as demonstrated by experimental derived bioconcentration factor values in fish. Model results showed that dicofol and its metabolites can be transported to remote regions. Limited monitoring evidence of dicofol in environmental media from remote sources is available.

Similar to DDT, dicofol is a toxic concentrated formulation found in the environment and humans with a long persistent and bioaccumulatative property. Prolonged or repeated exposure to dicofol can cause skin irritation, hyperstimulation of nerve transmissions along nerve axons. Dicofol is highly toxic in fish, aquatic invertebrates, algae and in birds is tied to eggshell thinning and reduced fertility.

Replacement of dicofol

A range of chemical and non-chemical alternatives to dicofol are available and accessible in various geographical regions. The alternatives, considered as technically feasible, include over 25 chemical pesticides, biological controls (pathogens and predators), botanical preparations (plant extracts), and agroecological practices (such as are used in agroecology, organics and integrated pest management or IPM).

For more information, please refer to the Dicofol page.

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), its salts and PFOA-related compounds

Listed under Annex A with specific exemptions (decision SC-9/12)

Risk profile Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF), addendum to the RME Ar, Ch, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), its salts and PFOA-related compounds means the following:
(i) Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; CAS No. 335-67-1), including any of its branched isomers;
(ii) Its salts;
(iii) PFOA-related compounds which, for the purposes of the Convention, are any substances that degrade to PFOA, including any substances (including salts and polymers) having a linear or branched perfluoroheptyl group with the moiety (C7F15)C as one of the structural elements
PFOA, its salts and PFOA-related compounds fall within a family of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs).
CAS No. 335-67-1

Use and production

PFOA, its salts and PFOA-related compounds are used widely in the production of fluoroelastomers and fluoropolymers, for the production of non–stick kitchen ware, food processing equipment. PFOA-related compounds, including side-chain fluorinated polymers, are used as surfactants and surface treatment agents in textiles, paper and paints, firefighting foams. PFOA has been detected in industrial waste, stain resistant carpets, carpet cleaning liquids, house dust, microwave popcorn bags, water, food, and Teflon. Unintentional formation of PFOA is created from inadequate incineration of fluoropolymers from municipal solid waste incineration with inappropriate incineration or open burning facilities at moderate temperatures.

POPs characteristics of PFOA

PFOA is highly stable and persistent in the environment with the capacity to undergo long range transport. This is evidenced by monitoring data of PFOA in air, water, soil/sediment and biota in both local and remote locations like the Arctic. PFOA can bioaccumulate and biomagnify in air-breathing mammals and other terrestrial species including humans. PFOA exhibits adverse effects for both terrestrial and aquatic species.

PFOA is identified as a substance of very high concern with a persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic structure for the environment and living organisms. PFOA-related compounds are released into the air, water, soil and solid waste, and degrade to PFOA in the environment and in organisms. Major health issues such as kidney cancer, testicular cancer, thyroid disease, pregnancy-induced hypertension, high cholesterol have been linked to PFOA.

Replacement of PFOA

Alternatives to all uses of PFOA in fire-fighting foams exist and include fluorine-free solutions as well as fluorosurfactants with C6-fluorotelomers. Fluorine-free foams are comparable to fluorine-based AFFFs and fire-fighting foams with PFOA in their performance and in meeting relevant certifications for almost all uses.

For more information, please refer to the PFOA page.