Listing of POPs in the Stockholm Convention

The chemicals targeted by the Stockholm Convention are listed in the annexes of the convention text:

Annex A (Elimination)

Parties must take measures to eliminate the production and use of the chemicals listed under Annex A. Specific exemptions for use or production are listed in the Annex and apply only to Parties that register for them.

Aldrin  Chlordane  Chlordecone 
Dieldrin  Endrin  Heptachlor 
Hexabromobiphenyl  Hexabromodiphenyl ether and heptabromodiphenyl ether  Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) 
Alpha hexachlorocyclohexane  Beta hexachlorocyclohexane  Lindane 
Mirex  Pentachlorobenzene  Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) 
Technical endosulfan and its related isomers  Tetrabromodiphenyl ether and pentabromodiphenyl ether  Toxaphene 
 
  

Annex B (Restriction)

Parties must take measures to restrict the production and use of the chemicals listed under Annex B in light of any applicable acceptable purposes and/or specific exemptions listed in the Annex.

DDT 

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, its salts and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride 
 

 

Annex C (Unintentional production)

Parties must take measures to reduce the unintentional releases of chemicals listed under Annex C with the goal of continuing minimization and, where feasible, ultimate elimination.

 

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD)

Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF)  Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)
 Pentachlorobenzene  Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)  

Pesticide
Industrial chemical

 

Aldrin     

Listed under Annex A

A pesticide applied to soils to kill termites, grasshoppers, corn rootworm, and other insect pests, aldrin can also kill birds, fish, and humans. In one incident, aldrin-treated rice is believed to have killed hundreds of shorebirds, waterfowl, and passerines along the Texas Gulf Coast when these birds either ate animals that had eaten the rice or ate the rice themselves. In humans, the fatal dose for an adult male is estimated to be about five grams. Humans are mostly exposed to aldrin through dairy products and animal meats. Studies in India indicate that the average daily intake of aldrin and its byproduct dieldrin is about 19 micrograms per person. 

Chlordane

Listed under Annex A

Used extensively to control termites and as a broad-spectrum insecticide on a range of agricultural crops, chlordane remains in the soil for a long time and has a reported half-life of one year. The lethal effects of chlordane on fish and birds vary according to the species, but tests have shown that it can kill mallard ducks, bobwhite quail, and pink shrimp. Chlordane may affect the human immune system and is classified as a possible human carcinogen. It is believed that human exposure occurs mainly through the air, and chlordane has been detected in the indoor air of residences in the US and Japan.

 DDT

Listed under Annex B with acceptable purpose for disease vector control

DDT was widely used during World War II to protect soldiers and civilians from malaria, typhus, and other diseases spread by insects. After the war, DDT continued to be used to control disease, and it was sprayed on a variety of agricultural crops, especially cotton. DDT continues to be applied against mosquitoes in several countries to control malaria. Its stability, its persistence (as much as 50% can remain in the soil 10-15 years after application), and its widespread use have meant that DDT residues can be found everywhere; residual DDT has even been detected in the Arctic.

Perhaps the best known toxic effect of DDT is egg-shell thinning among birds, especially birds of prey. Its impact on bird populations led to bans in many countries during the 1970s. Although its use had been banned in many countries, it has been detected in food from all over the world. Although residues in domestic animals have declined steadily over the last two decades, food-borne DDT remains the greatest source of exposure for the general population. The short-term acute effects of DDT on humans are limited, but long-term exposures have been associated with chronic health effects. DDT has been detected in breast milk, raising serious concerns about infant health.

Dieldrin

Listed under Annex A

Used principally to control termites and textile pests, dieldrin has also been used to control insect-borne diseases and insects living in agricultural soils. Its half-life in soil is approximately five years. The pesticide aldrin rapidly converts to dieldrin, so concentrations of dieldrin in the environment are higher than dieldrin use alone would indicate. Dieldrin is highly toxic to fish and other aquatic animals, particularly frogs, whose embryos can develop spinal deformities after exposure to low levels. Dieldrin residues have been found in air, water, soil, fish, birds, and mammals, including humans. Food represents the primary source of exposure to the general population. For example, dieldrin was the second most common pesticide detected in a US survey of pasteurized milk.

Endrin

Listed under Annex A

This insecticide is sprayed on the leaves of crops such as cotton and grains. It is also used to control rodents such as mice and voles. Animals can metabolize endrin, so it does not accumulate in their fatty tissue to the extent that structurally similar chemicals do. It has a long half-life, however, persisting in the soil for up to 12 years. In addition, endrin is highly toxic to fish. When exposed to high levels of endrin in the water, sheepshead minnows hatched early and died by the ninth day of their exposure. The primary route of exposure for the general human population is through food, although current dietary intake estimates are below the limits deemed safe by world health authorities.

Heptachlor

Listed under Annex A

Primarily used to kill soil insects and termites, heptachlor has also been used more widely to kill cotton insects, grasshoppers, other crop pests, and malaria-carrying mosquitoes. It is believed to be responsible for the decline of several wild bird populations, including Canadian Geese and American Kestrels in the Columbia River basin in the US. The geese died after eating seeds treated with levels of heptachlor lower than the usage levels recommended by the manufacturer, indicating that even responsible use of heptachlor may kill wildlife. Laboratory tests have also shown high doses of heptachlor to be fatal to mink, rats, and rabbits, with lower doses causing adverse behavioral changes and reduced reproductive success.

Heptachlor is classified as a possible human carcinogen. Food is the major source of exposure for humans, and residues have been detected in the blood of cattle from the US and from Australia.

 Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)

Listed under Annex A and Annex C

First introduced in 1945 to treat seeds, HCB kills fungi that affect food crops. It was widely used to control wheat bunt. It is also a byproduct of the manufacture of certain industrial chemicals and exists as an impurity in several pesticide formulations.

When people in eastern Turkey ate HCB-treated seed grain between 1954 and 1959, they developed a variety of symptoms, including photosensitive skin lesions, colic, and debilitation; several thousand developed a metabolic disorder called porphyria turcica, and 14% died. Mothers also passed HCB to their infants through the placenta and through breast milk. In high doses, HCB is lethal to some animals and, at lower levels, adversely affects their reproductive success. HCB has been found in food of all types. A study of Spanish meat found HCB present in all samples. In India, the estimated average daily intake of HCB is 0.13 micrograms per kilogram of body weight.

 

Mirex

Listed under Annex A

This insecticide is used mainly to combat fire ants, and it has been used against other types of ants and termites. It has also been used as a fire retardant in plastics, rubber, and electrical goods.

Direct exposure to mirex does not appear to cause injury to humans, but studies on laboratory animals have caused it to be classified as a possible human carcinogen. In studies mirex proved toxic to several plant species and to fish and crustaceans. It is considered to be one of the most stable and persistent pesticides, with a half life of up to 10 years. The main route of human exposure to mirex is through food, particularly meat, fish, and wild game.

Toxaphene

Listed under Annex A

This insecticide is used on cotton, cereal grains, fruits, nuts, and vegetables. It has also been used to control ticks and mites in livestock. Toxaphene was the most widely used pesticide in the US in 1975. Up to 50% of a toxaphene release can persist in the soil for up to 12 years.

For humans, the most likely source of toxaphene exposure is food. While the toxicity to humans of direct exposure is not high, toxaphene has been listed as a possible human carcinogen due to its effects on laboratory animals. It is highly toxic to fish; brook trout exposed to toxaphene for 90 days experienced a 46% reduction in weight and reduced egg viability, and long-term exposure to levels of 0.5 micrograms per liter of water reduced egg viability to zero.

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)

Listed under Annex A with specific exemptions and under Annex C

These compounds are used in industry as heat exchange fluids, in electric transformers and capacitors, and as additives in paint, carbonless copy paper, and plastics. Of the 209 different types of PCBs, 13 exhibit a dioxin-like toxicity. Their persistence in the environment corresponds to the degree of chlorination, and half-lives can vary from 10 days to one-and-a-half years.

PCBs are toxic to fish, killing them at higher doses and causing spawning failures at lower doses. Research also links PCBs to reproductive failure and suppression of the immune system in various wild animals, such as seals and mink.

Large numbers of people have been exposed to PCBs through food contamination. Consumption of PCB-contaminated rice oil in Japan in 1968 and in Taiwan in 1979 caused pigmentation of nails and mucous membranes and swelling of the eyelids, along with fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. Due to the persistence of PCBs in their mothers' bodies, children born up to seven years after the Taiwan incident showed developmental delays and behavioral problems. Similarly, children of mothers who ate large amounts of contaminated fish from Lake Michigan showed poorer short-term memory function. PCBs also suppress the human immune system and are listed as probable human carcinogens.

 Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD)

Listed under Annex C

These chemicals are produced unintentionally due to incomplete combustion, as well during the manufacture of pesticides and other chlorinated substances. They are emitted mostly from the burning of hospital waste, municipal waste, and hazardous waste, and also from automobile emissions, peat, coal, and wood. There are 75 different dioxins, of which seven are considered to be of concern. One type of dioxin was found to be present in the soil 10 - 12 years after the first exposure.

Dioxins have been associated with a number of adverse effects in humans, including immune and enzyme disorders and chloracne, and they are classified as possible human carcinogens. Laboratory animals given dioxins suffered a variety of effects, including an increase in birth defects and stillbirths. Fish exposed to these substances died shortly after the exposure ended. Food (particularly from animals) is the major source of exposure for humans.

Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF)

Listed under Annex C

These compounds are produced unintentionally from many of the same processes that produce dioxins, and also during the production of PCBs. They have been detected in emissions from waste incinerators and automobiles. Furans are structurally similar to dioxins and share many of their toxic effects. There are 135 different types, and their toxicity varies. Furans persist in the environment for long periods, and are classified as possible human carcinogens. Food, particularly animal products, is the major source of exposure for humans. Furans have also been detected in breast-fed infants.

Chlordecone

Listed under Annex A (decision SC-4/12)

Risk profile Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

Chlordecone is chemically related to Mirex, a pesticide listed in Annex A of the Convention.

CAS No: 143-50-0
Trade name: Kepone® and GC-1189

 

Use and production

Chlordecone is a synthetic chlorinated organic compound, which was mainly used as an agricultural pesticide. It was first produced in 1951 and introduced commercially in 1958. Currently, no use or production of the chemical is reported.

POPs characteristics of chlordecone

Chlordecone is highly persistent in the environment, has a high potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification and based on physico-chemical properties and modelling data, chlordecone can be transported for long distances. It is classified as a possible human carcinogen and is very toxic to aquatic organisms.

Replacement of chlordecone

Alternatives to chlordecone exist and can be implemented inexpensively. Many countries have already banned its sale and use. The main objective to phase out chlordecone would be to identify and manage obsolete stockpiles and wastes.

Hexabromobiphenyl

Listed under Annex A (decision SC-4/13)

Risk profile Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

Hexabromobiphenyl belongs to the group of polybrominated biphenyls, which are brominated hydrocarbons formed by substituting hydrogen with bromine in biphenyl.

CAS No: 36355-01-8
Trade name: FireMaster BP-6 and FireMaster FF-1

 

Use and production

Hexabromobiphenyl is an industrial chemical that has been used as a flame retardant, mainly in the 1970s. According to available information, hexabromobiphenyl is no longer produced or used in most countries.

POPs characteristics of hexabromobiphenyl

The chemical is highly persistent in the environment, highly bioaccumulative and has a strong possibility for long-range environmental transport. As hexabromobiphenyl is classified as a possible human carcinogen and has other chronic toxic effects, the Committee recommended its listing as a POP.

Replacement of hexabromobiphenyl

Alternatives are available for all uses of hexabromobiphenyl, so prohibiting its use and production is feasible and inexpensive. This chemical is already subject to several national and international regulations, restricting its use and production.

Hexabromodiphenyl ether and heptabromodiphenyl ether<br/> (commercial octabromodiphenyl ether)

Listed under Annex A with a specific exemption for use as articles containing these chemicals for recycling in accordance with the provision in Part IV of Annex A (decision SC-4/14)

Risk profile Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

Hexabromodiphenyl ether and heptabromodiphenyl ether are the main components of commercial octabromodiphenyl ether.

CAS No: 68631-49-2
CAS No: 207122-15-4
CAS No: 446255-22-7
CAS No: 207122-16-5

 

POPs characteristics of hexaBDE and heptaBDE

Commercial mixture of octaBDE is highly persistent, has a high potential for bioaccumulation and food-web biomagnification, as well as for long-range transport. The only degradation pathway is through debromination and producing other bromodiphenyl ethers.

Replacement of hexaBDE and heptaBDE

Alternatives generally exist and there is no information about any current production. However, it is reported that many articles in use still contain these chemicals.

Debromination and precursors

Polybromodiphenyl ethers can be subject to debromination, i.e. the replacement of bromine on the aromatic ring with hydrogen.

Higher bromodiphenyl ether congeners may be converted to lower, and possibly more toxic, congeners. The higher congeners might therefore be precursors to the tetraBDE, pentaBDE, hexaBDE, or heptaBDE.

Alpha hexachlorocyclohexane

Listed under Annex A (decision SC-4/10)

Risk profile Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

alpha hexachlorocyclohexane
CAS No: 319-84-6

 

Use and production

Although the intentional use of alpha-HCH as an insecticide was phased out years ago, this chemical is still produced as unintentional by-product of lindane. For each ton of lindane produced, around 6-10 tons of the other isomers including alpha- and beta-HCH are created. Large stockpiles of alpha- and beta-HCH are therefore present in the environment.

POPs characteristics of alpha-HCH

Alpha-HCH is highly persistent in water in colder regions and may bioaccumulate and biomagnify in biota and arctic food webs. This chemical is subject to long-range transport, is classified as potentially carcinogenic to humans and adversely affects wildlife and human health in contaminated regions.

Replacement of alpha-HCH

Today, alpha-HCH is only produced unintentionally during the production of lindane. Releases also occur from stockpiles and contaminated sites.

Beta hexachlorocyclohexane

Listed under Annex A (decision SC-4/11)

Risk profile Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

beta hexachlorocyclohexane
CAS No: 319-85-7

 

Use and production

Although the intentional use of beta-HCH as an insecticide was phased out years ago, this chemical is still produced as unintentional by-product of lindane. For each ton of lindane produced, around 6-10 tons of the other isomers including alpha- and beta-HCH are created. Large stockpiles of alpha- and beta-HCH are therefore present in the environment.

POPs characteristics of beta-HCH

Beta-HCH is highly persistent in water in colder regions and may bioaccumulate and biomagnify in biota and arctic food webs. This chemical is subject to long-range transport, is classified as potentially carcinogenic to humans and adversely affects wildlife and human health in contaminated regions.

Replacement of beta-HCH

Today, beta-HCH is only produced unintentionally during the production of lindane. Releases also occur from stockpiles and contaminated sites.

Lindane

Listed under Annex A with a specific exemption for use as a human health pharmaceutical for control of head lice and scabies as second line treatment (decision SC-4/15)

Risk profile Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

Lindane is the common name for the gamma isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). Technical HCH is an isomeric mixture that contains mainly five forms, namely alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta- and epsilon-HCH.

Lindane (gamma-HCH)
CAS No: 58-89-9

 

Use and production

Lindane has been used as a broad-spectrum insecticide for seed and soil treatment, foliar applications, tree and wood treatment and against ectoparasites in both veterinary and human applications. The production of lindane has decreased rapidly in the last few years and only few countries are still known to produce lindane.

POPs characteristics of lindane

Lindane is persistent, bioaccumulates easily in the food chain and bioconcentrates rapidly. There is evidence for long-range transport and toxic effects (immunotoxic, reproductive and developmental effects) in laboratory animals and aquatic organisms.

Replacement of lindane

Alternatives for lindane are generally available, except for use as a human health pharmaceutical to control head lice and scabies. Regulations on the production, use and monitoring of lindane already exist in several countries.

Pentachlorobenzene (PeCB)

Listed under Annex A and under Annex C (decision SC-4/16)

Risk profile Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF), addendum to the risk profile Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

PeCB belongs to a group of chlorobenzenes that are characterized by a benzene ring in which the hydrogen atoms are substituted by one or more chlorines.

CAS No: 608-93-5

 

Use and production

PeCB was used in PCB products, in dyestuff carriers, as a fungicide, a flame retardant and as a chemical intermediate e.g. previously for the production of quintozene. PeCB might still be used as an intermediate. PeCB is also produced unintentionally during combustion, thermal and industrial processes. It also present as impurities in products such as solvents or pesticides.

POPs characteristics of of PeCB

PeCB is persistent in the environment, highly bioaccumulative and has a potential for long-range environmental transport. It is moderately toxic to humans and very toxic to aquatic organisms.

Replacement of of PeCB

The production of PeCB ceased some decades ago in the main producer countries as efficient and cost-effective alternatives are available. Applying Best Available Techniques and Best Environmental Practices would significantly reduce the unintentional production of PeCB.

Tetrabromodiphenyl ether and pentabromodiphenyl ether <br/>(commercial pentabromodiphenyl ether)

Listed under Annex A with a specific exemption for use as articles containing these chemicals for recycling in accordance with the provision in Part IV of Annex A (decision SC-4/18)

Risk profile Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

Tetrabromodiphenyl ether and pentabromodiphenyl ether are the main components of commercial pentabromodiphenyl ether.

CAS No: 5436-43-1 
CAS No: 60348-60-9

 

POPs characteristics of tetraBDE and pentaBDE

Commercial mixture of pentaBDE is highly persistent in the environment, bioaccumulative and has a high potential for long-range environmental transport. These chemicals have been detected in humans in all regions. There is evidence of its potential for toxic effects in wildlife, including mammals.

Replacement of tetraBDE and pentaBDE

Alternatives are available and used to replace these substances in many countries, although they might also have adverse effects on human health and the environment. Alternatives might not be available for use in military airplanes. The identification and also handling of equipment and wastes containing brominated diphenyl ethers is considered a challenge.

Polybromodiphenyl ethers

Polybromodiphenyl ether congeners including tetraBDE, pentaBDE, hexaBDE, and heptaBDE inhibit or suppress combustion in organic materials and therefore are used as additive flame retardants.

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), its salts and<br/> perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (PFOS-F)

Listed under Annex B with acceptable purposes and specific exemptions (decision SC-4/17)

Risk profile Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation (RME) Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF), addendum to the RME Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

PFOS is a fully fluorinated anion, which is commonly used as a salt or incorporated into larger polymers. PFOS and its closely related compounds, which may contain PFOS impurities or substances that can result in PFOS, are members of the large family of perfluoroalkyl sulfonate substances.

perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (CAS No: 1763-23-1) and its salts
perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (CAS No: 307-35-7)

 

Use and production

PFOS is both intentionally produced and an unintended degradation product of related anthropogenic chemicals. The current intentional use of PFOS is widespread and includes: electric and electronic parts, fire fighting foam, photo imaging, hydraulic fluids and textiles. PFOS is still produced in several countries.

POPs characteristics of PFOS

PFOS is extremely persistent and has substantial bioaccumulating and biomagnifying properties, although it does not follow the classic pattern of other POPs by partitioning into fatty tissues but instead binds to proteins in the blood and the liver. It has a capacity to undergo long-range transport and also fulfills the toxicity criteria of the Stockholm Convention.

Replacement of PFOS

While alternatives to PFOS are available for some applications, this is not always the case in developing countries where existing alternatives may need to be phased in. For some applications like photo imaging, semi-conductor or aviation hydraulic fluids, technically feasible alternatives to PFOS are not available to date.

List of acceptable purposes and specific exemptions
for production and use of PFOS, its salts and PFOS-F

Acceptable purposes:

Photo-imaging, photo-resist and anti-reflective coatings for semi-conductor, etching agent for compound semi-conductor and ceramic filter, aviation hydraulic fluids, metal plating (hard metal plating) only in closed-loop systems, certain medical devices (such as ethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (ETFE) layers and radio-opaque ETFE production, in‑vitro diagnostic medical devices, and CCD colour filters), fire‑fighting foam, insect baits for control of leaf-cutting ants from Atta spp. and Acromyrmex spp.

Specific exemptions:

Photo masks in the semiconductor and liquid crystal display (LCD) industries, metal plating (hard metal plating, decorative plating), electric and electronic parts for some colour printers and colour copy machines, insecticides for control of red imported fire ant, and termites, chemically driven oil production, carpets, leather and apparel, textiles and upholstery, paper and packaging, coatings and coating additives, rubber and plastics.

Technical endosulfan and its related isomers

Listed under Annex A with specific exemptions (decision SC-5/3)

Risk profile Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)
Risk management evaluation Ar, Cn, En, Fr, Ru, Sp (PDF)

Chemical identity and properties

Endosulfan occurs as two isomers: alpha- and beta-endosulfan. They are both biologically active. Technical endosulfan (CAS No: 115-29-7) is a mixture of the two isomers along with small amounts of impurities.

 

 

alpha-endosulfan
CAS No: 959-98-8



 

beta-endosulfan
CAS No: 33213-65-9


Use and production

According to the risk management evaluation on endosulfan, adopted by the POPRC, endosulfan is an insecticide that has been used since the 1950s to control crop pests, tsetse flies and ectoparasites of cattle and as a wood preservative. As a broad-spectrum insecticide, endosulfan is currently used to control a wide range of pests on a variety of crops including coffee, cotton, rice, sorghum and soy.

A total of between 18,000 and 20,000 tons of endosulfan are produced annually in Brazil, China, India, Israel and South Korea. Colombia, the United States of America  and several countries in Europe that used to produce endosulfan have stopped its production.

The largest users of endosulfan (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Pakistan and the United States) use a total of about 15,000 tons of endosulfan annually. An additional 21 countries report using endosulfan. The use of endosulfan is banned or will be phased out in 60 countries that, together, account for 45 per cent of current global use. 

POPs characteristics of endosulfan

According to the risk profile on endosulfan, adopted by the POPRC, endosulfan is persistent in the atmosphere, sediments and water. Endosulfan bioaccumulates and has the potential for long-range transport. It has been detected in air, sediments, water and in living organisms in remote areas, such as the Arctic, that are distant from areas of intensive use.

Endosulfan is toxic to humans and has been shown to have adverse effects on a wide range of aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Exposure to endosulfan has been linked to congenital physical disorders, mental retardations and deaths in farm workers and villagers in developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Endosulfan sulfate shows toxicity similar to that of endosulfan.

Replacement of endosulfan

Chemical and non-chemical alternatives to endosulfan are available in many geographical situations both in developed and developing countries. Some of these alternatives are being applied in countries where endosulfan has been banned or is being phased-out. However, in some countries, it may be difficult and/or costly to replace endosulfan for specific crop-pest complexes. Some countries also prefer to use endosulfan in pollinator management, insecticide resistance management, integrated pest management systems and because it is effective against a broad range of pests. Some countries want to continue to use endosulfan to allow time for the phase-in of alternatives.