As of 2023, the following POPs listed in Annexes C, Part I to the Stockholm Convention:

  • Hexachlorobenzene (HCB);
  • Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD)
  • Pentachlorobenzene (PeCB);
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB);
  • Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF); and
  • Polychlorinated naphtalenes (PCN).

In accordance with Article 5 of the Stockholm Convention, Parties are required to identify, characterize, quantify and prioritize sources of releases of unintentional POPs, and develop strategies with concrete measures, timelines and goals to reduce total releases from anthropogenic sources of the chemicals listed in Annex C with the goal of continually minimizing and, where feasible, ultimately eliminating releases of these unintentionally produced chemicals.

  • For existing sources of releases:
    • Parties need to promote the implementation of BAT and BEP for the identified priority source categories.
  • For new sources of releases:
    • Parties require to implement BAT for the identified priority sources and promote BAT on all other sources; and
    • Parties need to promote the use of BEP.

Toward this end, Parties must develop action plans as part of their National Implementation Plans (NIP) to identify, characterize and address the releases of unintentional POPs listed in Annex C. Action plans to be developed according to Article 5 of the Convention shall include evaluations of current and projected releases that are derived through the development and maintenance of source inventories and release estimates, taking into consideration the source categories listed in Annex C.

Five years after developing their action plan, Parties are required to review their adopted strategies, including the extent to which their unintentional POPs releases have been reduced, and to incorporate such reviews in national reports pursuant to Article 15.

Report on emissions

PCDD/PCDF releases are often accompanied by releases of other unintentional POPs, which can be minimized or eliminated by the same measures that are used to address PCDD/PCDF releases. When a comprehensive and consistent inventory of PCDD/PCDF is elaborated, it allows the identification of priority sources, assignment of counter-measures, and development of action plans to minimize releases of all unintentional POPs.

At COP 11, a report on the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran releases reported according to Article 5 and Annex C was presented. The report was prepared by the Secretariat with the support of the experts on the Toolkit and on best available techniques and best environmental practices.

135 national reports were assessed and an attempt was made to resolve contradictions through expert judgment. Overall, 100 PCDD/PCDF inventories relating to 98 Parties, 1 Signatory and a special administrative region of a Party, were available, and information on relevant sources of releases at the regional and global levels was identified.

Report on the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran releases reported according to Article 5 and Annex C

Unintentional POPs toolkit

To assist Parties in establishing release inventories of unintentional POPs that are consistent in format and content, ensuring that it is possible to compare results, identify priorities, mark progress and follow changes over time at the country level, as well as regional and global levels, the Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Releases of Dioxins, Furans and Other Unintentional POPs was developed.

Unintentional POPs Guidance documents

Guidelines on best available techniques and guidance on best environmental practices have been developed and are regularly updated to guide Parties and others in their actions to reduce or eliminate releases from unintentional production of chemicals listed in Annex C.