To facilitate implementation of Article 5, Parties recognized the need for a harmonized framework for elaboration of comparable release inventories of Annex C chemicals, and for detailed state-of the-art guidelines on best available techniques and guidance on best environmental practices.
Development of such a harmonized framework and guidance was initiated by UNEP Chemicals, in broad cooperation with experts from developed as well as developing countries, before the Convention entered into force. Currently these processes continues under the Convention with the goal of keeping all relevant documents and procedures up-to date and developing them further as necessary and appropriate.
An important implementation mechanism is technical assistance including awareness raising, capacity strengthening, training on practical use and application, as well as transfer of technology and on-ground investment projects.
Parties are required to identify, characterize, quantify and prioritize sources of releases of Annex C chemicals; to evaluate efficacy of the laws and policies relating to the management of such releases; and to develop strategies with timelines and goals to minimize these releases by promoting / requiring use of best available techniques and best environmental practices. Parties are also required to evaluate effectiveness of these strategies and their success in minimizing releases of Annex C POPs every five years and to report such reviews in reports submitted pursuant to Article 15. Parties shall review and update these strategies as necessary and appropriate.
The following source categories, listed in Annex C, Part II, have the potential for comparably high formation and release of chemicals listed in Annex C:
- Waste incinerators, including co-incinerators of municipal, hazardous or medical waste or of sewage sludge;
- Cement kilns firing hazardous waste;
- Production of pulp using elemental chlorine or chemicals generating elemental chlorine for bleaching;
- The following thermal processes in the metallurgical industry:
- Secondary copper production;
- Sinter plants in the iron and steel industry;
- Secondary aluminium production;
- Secondary zinc production.
Chemicals listed in Annex C may also be unintentionally formed and released from the following source categories, listed in Annex C, Part III, including:
- Open burning of waste, including burning of landfill sites;
- Thermal processes in the metallurgical industry not mentioned in Part II;
- Residential combustion sources;
- Fossil fuel-fired utility and industrial boilers;
- Firing installations for wood and other biomass fuels;
- Specific chemical production processes releasing unintentionally formed persistent organic pollutants, especially production of chlorophenols and chloranil;
- Motor vehicles, particularly those burning leaded gasoline;
- Destruction of animal carcasses;
- Textile and leather dyeing (with chloranil) and finishing (with alkaline extraction);
- Shredder plants for the treatment of end of life vehicles;
- Smouldering of copper cables;
- Waste oil refineries.